A Meta-Study of Musicians’ Non-Verbal Interaction

By Emanuela Marchetti and Kristoffer Jensen.

Published by The Technology Collection

Format Price
Article: Print $US10.00
Article: Electronic $US5.00

Music can be seen as a social skilled practice, since the creation of good music is the result of a group effort. According to current literature, communication through non-verbal cues is an important factor in securing a good performance, since it allows musicians to correct each other without interruptions. Hence, despite the fact that the skill to engage in a non-verbal interaction is described as tacit knowledge, it is fundamental for both musicians and teachers (Davidson and Good 2002). Typical observed non-verbal cues are for example: physical gestures, modulations of sound, steady eye contact, and facial expressions (Levasseur 1994, Kurkul 1997). 

This meta-study proposes to investigate musicians’ interaction using the Belief-Desire-Intention model (Bratman 1999) that has been used in software development of planning agents (Rao and Georgeff 1995). According to Bratman, as planning agents, we act intentionally, and we form and execute (partial) plans. Future-directed intentions are further reconsidered according to the reduced set of desires and beliefs. In the BDI sense musicians interact to execute their plan, originated for instance by the desire to play good music, the belief of knowing how the music should be played and the intention to communicate through non-verbal interaction, which allows them to achieve their desire and improve the performance on-the-fly. 
The BDI model has proven useful in synthesising information and it is believed that this scientific-rational model will bring benefits in analysing a tacit practice.

Keywords: Non-Verbal Interaction, Belief, Desire, Intention, Tacit Knowledge, Music Practice

The International Journal of Technology, Knowledge and Society, Volume 6, Issue 5, pp.1-12. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 821.460KB).

Emanuela Marchetti

Ph.D. Applicant, Institute of Media Technology, Aalborg University Esbjerg, Esbjerg, Denmark

Emanuela Marchetti, Interaction Designer and Design Anthropologist, specialised in Ethnography, User Centred and Participatory Design. Emanuela Marchetti, Interaction Designer and Design Anthropologist, specialised in Ethnography, User Centred and Participatory Design. Marchetti has a strong interest in studying social interaction and skilled practices, in relation to and through artefacts. Initially this interest was related to the past, therefore she pursued a degree in archaeology, providing her with the skills to investigate human practice, through material culture, artefacts and settlements. Research interests in the fields of anthropology and design led her to undertaking graduate studies in IT Product Design working with Professor Jacob Buur and Associate Professor Wendy Gunn. During her studies she focused on involving ethnographic methods within a design process. Developing her research she is interested in studying skilled practice and social interaction combining field data with literature.

Kristoffer Jensen

Associated Professor, Institute of Media Technology, Aalborg University Esbjerg, Esbjerg, Denmark

Kristoffer Jensen obtained his Masters degree in 1988 in Computer Science at the Technical University of Lund, Sweden, and a D.E.A in Signal Processing in 1989 at the ENSEEIHT, Toulouse, France. His Ph.D. was delivered and defended in 1999 at the Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, treating signal processing applied to music with a physical and perceptual point-of-view. This mainly involved classification, and modeling of musical sounds. Kristoffer Jensen has been involved in synthesizers for children, state of the art next generation effect processors, and signal processing in music informatics. His current research topic is signal processing with musical applications, and related fields, including perception, psychoacoustics, physical models and expression of music. Kristoffer Jensen has chaired 3 major conferences, been the editor of 6 books and conference proceedings, and he currently holds a position at the Institute of Media Technology, Aalborg University Esbjerg as Associate Professor.

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