Science can play a crucial role in the process of innovation and technological progress. It can contribute to innovation in various ways, such as improving the productivity of research and development (R&D) or removing technical bottleneck. The linkage between university and industry is considered to be a key channel between science and innovation. In other words, interaction between university academics and industry researchers helps diffusion of scientific knowledge into industry. Information and communication technology (ICT) has been a crucial catalyst of this diffusion process during the recent years. The main aim of this paper is to test empirically the hypothesis: fundamental scientific research undertaken by industry and the university-industry collaboration influence knowledge production across countries. We intend to focus our analysis mainly on two technology intensive societies: the US and Japan. Innovation capacity in Japan, measured by the number of patents per researcher, seems to be declining since 1980s. In contrast, innovation capacity in the US has been rising in the same period. The structure of this paper is as follows: The first section briefly reviews studies on the role of science and university-industry collaboration. The second section describes the recent trend in technology indicators in the US and Japan. The third section introduces our model and data. Finally, in the fourth section, the results of our estimations are presented.
|Keywords:||Science and Technology, Innovation, Information and Communication Technology|
The University of Sydney, Australia
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